“How do we get all our students to reach the same goal when the ‘one size fits all’ model doesn’t wo
Step 1: Identify the Features of the Materials that Need To Be Adapted
The design of materials can present many different types of problems for students who struggle. Teachers, parents, & tutors adapting materials should examine each reading passage or curricular unit for features that might cause a learning (reading comprehension) problem. For example, the content (or reading passage) may be very complex, or poorly organized, or it might present too much information. It may not be relevant (important) to students or it may be boring. Further, it may call for skills or strategies or background information that the student does not possess. It may present activities that do not lead to mastery, or it may fail to give students cues about how to think about or study the information. The materials used also may not provide a variety of flexible options through which students can demonstrate competence.
Step 2. Determine the Type of Adaptation That Will Enable the Student To Meet the Demand
Once the materials have been evaluated and possible problem areas identified, the type of format adaptation must be selected. Format adaptations can be made by :
Altering existing materials- Rewrite, reorganize, add to, or recast the information so that the student can access the regular curriculum material independently, e.g., prepare a study guide and audiotape.
Mediating existing materials- provide additional instructional support, guidance, and direction to the student in the use of the materials. Alter your instruction to mediate the barriers presented by the materials so that you directly lead the student to interact with the materials in different ways. For example, have students survey the reading material, collaboratively preview the text, and create an outline of the material to use as a study guide.
Selecting alternate materials-Select new materials that are more sensitive to the needs of students with disabilities or are inherently designed to compensate for learning problems. For example, use an interactive computer program that cues critical ideas, reads text, inserts graphic organizers, defines and illustrates words, presents and reinforces learning in smaller increments, and provides more opportunities for practice and cumulative review.